FL 8 Questions

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z3lan
Posts: 126
Joined: Thu Feb 28, 2019 5:24 pm

FL 8 Questions

Post by z3lan » Fri May 17, 2019 10:47 am

Chem/Physics

#3: What is a reaction in which phosphate would act as an electron acceptor? In general, when looking at polyatomic ions, how do we tell which ones can act as electron acceptors?
#19: This isn't a question about the question, but just a strategy question in general. How do you stop making careless mistakes with graphs? Is there any sort of mental checklist you'd recommend going through when looking at a graph in a passage? Some of the careless mistakes I've found myself making include mistaking one axis for another, failing to pay close attention to the units on graphs, misunderstanding error bars and significance asterisks, and falsely assuming that a given axis starts with zero. Is there a particular place in one of the NS books that would be good for me to take a look at?
#20: I'm having a bit of difficulty visualizing how doppler imaging is working in the study. Is the idea that the light bounces off a particular rbc and then goes back to the monitor? When we're recording a change in frequency, what are we actually measuring?
#49: I'm a bit confused by answer choice C. Why would the rxn be too small to be observed? Doesn't it depend on Benedict's reagent changing color rather than the sugar? In other words why does the size of the polysaccharide matter as long as it's reducing Benedict's reagent?
#57: Why doesn't the average kinetic energy of a gas depend on its mass? Isn't kinetic energy 1/2mv^2?

CARS

#17: The passage says that "Dewey altruistically advocated for critical thinking." Doesn't the author saying that Dewey was altruistic imply an attitude of professional admiration?
#24: What's the difference between roman numeral II and the scenario described in the correct answer to #22? Don't both scenarios match a situation where there is "some level of political participation in the society, allow for partial or partially effective means to seek redress of grievances from the government?"

Bio/Biochem

#21: I'm not following where the support is coming from in the passage for RN II and RN III. Beta galactosidase is a peptide, not a ring. Why would torsional strain and non-bonded strain apply to the enzyme, a presumably non-cyclic chain of amino acids?
#38: I don't understand why answer choice C is wrong.

Psychology/Sociology
#23: Where is answer choice A mentioned in the passage?
#56: Weren't there two experimental conditions in the passage? Why isn't C in the answer choice?
NS_Tutor_Will
Posts: 766
Joined: Fri May 25, 2018 9:15 am

Re: FL 8 Questions

Post by NS_Tutor_Will » Sun May 19, 2019 9:50 am

Thanks for the questions! I'll try to take them on one at a time.

C/P:
Q3: What is a reaction in which phosphate would act as an electron acceptor? In general, when looking at polyatomic ions, how do we tell which ones can act as electron acceptors?
Phosphate isn't really going to act as an electron acceptor because of its reduction potential. Typically, electron acceptors are going to have high oxidation potentials and won't have large concentrations of negative charges.
Q19: This isn't a question about the question, but just a strategy question in general. How do you stop making careless mistakes with graphs? Is there any sort of mental checklist you'd recommend going through when looking at a graph in a passage? Some of the careless mistakes I've found myself making include mistaking one axis for another, failing to pay close attention to the units on graphs, misunderstanding error bars and significance asterisks, and falsely assuming that a given axis starts with zero. Is there a particular place in one of the NS books that would be good for me to take a look at?
I always approach figures in the same way: 1) look at the chart title and caption 2) look at the axes and the units 3) look at the general trend. I do all these things during the initial reading of the passage. Then, I go back and dive into the figure in more depth once a question directs me to do so. There's not perfect system, but I really drilled practice with graphs and focused on interpreting everything when reviewing my FLs, even if the graphs weren't asked about. The AAMC SB is a great place to get practice with figure interpretation
Q20: I'm having a bit of difficulty visualizing how doppler imaging is working in the study. Is the idea that the light bounces off a particular rbc and then goes back to the monitor? When we're recording a change in frequency, what are we actually measuring?
It's not light, but ultrasound waves, but yes that's the right idea. We're measuring the difference between the expected frequency and the observed frequency, which will tells us about the frequency shift, which tells us about the speed and position of the different components of whatever we're "ultrasounding." With this question, when cos(theta) is 0, there is no horizontal component to the velocity and so there wouldn't be any frequency shifts read by the monitor.
Q49: I'm a bit confused by answer choice C. Why would the rxn be too small to be observed? Doesn't it depend on Benedict's reagent changing color rather than the sugar? In other words why does the size of the polysaccharide matter as long as it's reducing Benedict's reagent?
The reaction is too small to be observed because the change in color would be too slight, since there is only a single oxidation per starch molecule. If there was an oxidation per glucose, then we'd get enough oxidations to observe the color change, but with only one per starch, we won't see the color change. Only a small amount of Benedict's reagent would be reduced relative to the solution.
Q57: Why doesn't the average kinetic energy of a gas depend on its mass? Isn't kinetic energy 1/2mv^2?
The average kinetic energy of an ideal gas does not rely on mass, by definition. Here's the expression to use: KE = (3/2)KBT, where KB is the Boltzmann constant.

CARS:
Q17: The passage says that "Dewey altruistically advocated for critical thinking." Doesn't the author saying that Dewey was altruistic imply an attitude of professional admiration?
Copying this from another tutor's response:
A student recently wrote us: "To me, the fact that the author describes Dewey's actions as altruistic and his impact as undeniable makes the text not objective. Also, the fact that it says that this passage is adapted from an article in a journal of philosophy suggests that the author is a professional. I think "professional admiration" is thus a better answer here."

The problem with the answer of "professional admiration" is that "admiration" doesn't have strong evidence in the passage to support it as a description of the author's attitude towards Dewey. The descriptors "altruistic" and "impact" are not strong enough to support the notion that the author admired Dewey's actions. Stronger language, such as "I approve of Dewey's actions." or something like "Dewey was the most significant philosopher of his time.", is needed to support an answer that describes the author's attitude as one of "admiration". The most appropriate description is the correct answer, "objective interest".
Q24: What's the difference between roman numeral II and the scenario described in the correct answer to #22? Don't both scenarios match a situation where there is "some level of political participation in the society, allow for partial or partially effective means to seek redress of grievances from the government?"
In Q22, the answer choice correctly gets at the idea of "limited participation in legal due process." It is not total participation, but there is some access to participate. RNII in Q24 states that there is no civic participation whatsoever by anyone outside of the military. This doesn't fit with the passage description of "some level of political participation in the society."

B/B:
Q21: I'm not following where the support is coming from in the passage for RN II and RN III. Beta galactosidase is a peptide, not a ring. Why would torsional strain and non-bonded strain apply to the enzyme, a presumably non-cyclic chain of amino acids?
The third paragraph states "Classical conformational itineraries include planar, ion-like transition states in (i,ii) chair or (iii,iv) boat conformations" and Figure 1 shows the "classic conformational itineraries." So we know the general shape and can recognize that there are several ring conformations. It also says in the third paragraph: "The shapes that sugars adopt upon binding to the glycoside hydrolase, and the conformational changes that occur along the catalysis reaction coordinate, are termed the conformational itinerary." This means that the shapes are determined by both the enzyme itself as well as the way it binds a particular substrate. From there, the question is essentially asking "which of the following is relevant to ring stability?" Each of these RNs can contribute to stability in some way or another (either based on our outside knowledge or the passage (particularly paragraph 3).
Q38: I don't understand why answer choice C is wrong.
The study was basically just looking at what happens to the amount of mutant mtDNA expressed in the presence or absence of TALEN. There is less mutated mtDNA in the presence of TALEN, but this doesn't have anything to do with transmission. Instead, the study is looking at amounts in a individual mitochondria, not changes over time or via transmission.

P/S:
Q23: Where is answer choice A mentioned in the passage?
To me, this part of the passage ties back to the way that individual behavior can reflect cultural norms: "Despite this increase in awareness, workplace abuse continues to be dismissed by much of the culture. The perception that these behaviors are simply the result of a 'difficult boss' or that the victim is being 'a whiner' are rampant."
Q56: Weren't there two experimental conditions in the passage? Why isn't C in the answer choice?
There are two conditions in the passage, but this question seems to be asking about the scenario presented in the answer choice which only deals with one training. Thus, ABAB makes more sense (especially with the "once more" language). To be ABAC, it seems that the one group would need to go through the different conditions.

I hope these answers are helpful!
z3lan
Posts: 126
Joined: Thu Feb 28, 2019 5:24 pm

Re: FL 8 Questions

Post by z3lan » Tue May 21, 2019 12:27 pm

Very much so. Thanks!
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